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Association Between Sensorimotor Impairments and Functional Brain Changes in Patients With Low Back Pain : A Critical Review

GOOSSENS N; RUMMENS S; JANSSENS L; CAEYENBERGHS K; BRUMAGNE S
AM J PHYS MED REHABIL , 2018, vol. 97, n° 3, p. 200-211
Doc n°: 186793
Localisation : Documentation IRR

D.O.I. : http://dx.doi.org/DOI:10.1097/PHM.0000000000000859
Descripteurs : CE51 - LOMBALGIE

Low back pain (LBP) coincides with sensorimotor impairments, for example, reduced
lumbosacral tactile and proprioceptive acuity and postural control deficits.
Recent functional magnetic resonance imaging studies suggest that sensorimotor
impairments in LBP may be associated with brain changes. However, no consensus
exists regarding the relationship between functional brain changes and
sensorimotor behavior in LBP. Therefore, this review critically discusses the
available functional magnetic resonance imaging studies on brain activation
related to nonnociceptive somatosensory stimulation and motor performance in
individuals with LBP. Four electronic databases were searched, yielding nine
relevant studies. Patients with LBP showed reduced sensorimotor-related brain
activation and a reorganized lumbar spine representation in higher-order
(multi)sensory processing and motor regions, including primary and secondary
somatosensory cortices, supplementary motor area, and superior temporal gyrus.
These results may support behavioral findings of sensorimotor impairments in LBP.
In addition, patients with LBP displayed widespread increased sensorimotor-evoked
brain activation in regions often associated with abnormal pain processing.
Overactivation in these regions could indicate an overresponsiveness to sensory
inputs that signal potential harm to the spine, thereby inducing overgeneralized
protective responses. Hence, functional brain changes could contribute to the
development and recurrence of LBP. However, future studies investigating the
causality between sensorimotor-related brain function and LBP are imperative.

Langue : ANGLAIS

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