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Paediatric multiple sclerosis: a new era in diagnosis and treatment

DEV MED CHILD NEUROL , 2019, vol. 61, n° 9, p. 1039-1049
Doc n°: 189815
Localisation : Documentation IRR

D.O.I. : http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/dmcn.14212

Multiple sclerosis is a chronic immune?mediated demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. The diagnosis of multiple sclerosis in children, as in adults, requires evidence of dissemination of inflammatory activity in more than one location in the central nervous system (dissemination in space) and recurrent disease over time (dissemination in time). The identification of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibodies (MOG?Ab) and aquaporin?A antibodies (AQP4?Ab), and the subsequent discovery of their pathogenic mechanisms, have led to a shift in the classification of relapsing demyelinating syndromes. This is reflected in the 2017 revised criteria for the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis, which emphasizes the exclusion of multiple sclerosis mimics and aims to enable earlier diagnosis and thus treatment initiation. The long?term efficacy of individual therapies initiated in children with multiple sclerosis is hard to evaluate, owing to the small numbers of patients who have the disease, the relatively high number of patients who switch therapy, and the need for long follow?up studies. Nevertheless, an improvement in prognosis with a globally reduced annual relapse rate in children with multiple sclerosis is now observed compared with the pretreatment era, indicating a possible long?term effect of therapies. Given the higher relapse rate in children compared with adults, and the impact multiple sclerosis has on cognition in the developing brain, there is a question whether rapid escalation or potent agents should be used in children, while the short? and long?term safety profiles of these drugs are being established. With the results of the first randomized controlled trial of fingolimod versus interferon??1a in paediatric multiple sclerosis published in 2018 and several clinical trials underway, there is hope for further progress in the field of paediatric multiple sclerosis.

Langue : ANGLAIS

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